wireframe là gì

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A wireframe document for a person profile view

A website wireframe, also known as a page schematic or screen blueprint, is a visual guide that represents the skeletal framework of a trang web.[1]: 166  The term wireframe is taken from other fields that use a skeletal framework đồ sộ represent 3 dimensional shape and volume.[2] Wireframes are created for the purpose of arranging elements đồ sộ best accomplish a particular purpose. The purpose is usually driven by a business objective and a creative idea. The wireframe depicts the page layout or arrangement of the website's nội dung, including interface elements and navigational systems, and how they work together.[3]: 131  The wireframe usually lacks typographic style, color, or graphics, since the main focus lies in functionality, behavior, and priority of nội dung.[1]: 167  In other words, it focuses on what a screen does, not what it looks lượt thích.[1]: 168  Wireframes can be pencil drawings or sketches on a whiteboard, or they can be produced by means of a broad array of không tính tiền or commercial software applications. Wireframes are generally created by business analysts, user experience designers, developers, visual designers, and by those with expertise in interaction design, information architecture and user research.

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Wireframes focus on:

  • The range of functions available
  • The relative priorities of the information and functions
  • The rules for displaying certain kinds of information
  • The effect of different scenarios on the display[1]: 169 

The trang web wireframe connects the underlying conceptual structure, or information architecture, đồ sộ the surface, or visual design of the trang web.[3]: 131  Wireframes help establish functionality and the relationships between different screen templates of a trang web. An iterative process, creating wireframes is an effective way đồ sộ make rapid prototypes of pages, while measuring the practicality of a design concept. Wireframing typically begins between “high-level structural work—like flowcharts or site maps—and screen designs.”[1]: 167  Within the process of building a trang web, wireframing is where thinking becomes tangible.[4]: 186 

Wireframes are also utilized for the prototyping of mobile sites, computer applications, or other screen-based products that involve human-computer interaction.[2]

Uses of wireframes[edit]

Wireframes may be utilized by different disciplines. Developers use wireframes đồ sộ get a more tangible grasp of the site's functionality, while designers use them đồ sộ push the user interface (UI) process. User experience designers and information architects use wireframes đồ sộ show navigation paths between pages. Business Analysts use wireframes đồ sộ visually tư vấn the business rules and interaction requirements for a screen. Business stakeholders review wireframes đồ sộ ensure that requirements and objectives are met through the design.[1]: 167  Professionals who create wireframes include business analysts, information architects, interaction designers, user experience designers, graphic designers, programmers, and product managers.[2]

Working with wireframes may be a collaborative effort since it bridges the information architecture đồ sộ the visual design. Due đồ sộ overlaps in these professional roles, conflicts may occur, making wireframing a controversial part of the design process.[4]: 186  Since wireframes signify a “bare bones” aesthetic, it is difficult for designers đồ sộ assess how closely the wireframe needs đồ sộ depict actual screen layouts.[1]: 168  To avoid conflicts it is recommended that business analysts who understand the user requirements, create a basic wire frame and then work with designers đồ sộ further improve the wireframes. Another difficulty with wireframes is that they don't effectively display interactive details because they are static representations. Modern UI design incorporates various devices such as expanding panels, hover effects, and carousels that pose a challenge for 2-D diagrams.[1]: 169 

The main benefit of wireframes is that they can be used đồ sộ iterate on any interface in an agile manner. This happens through a process oftentimes referred đồ sộ as usability tests, where users are provided with an opportunity đồ sộ interact with the interface and either think aloud about their thought process or answer more structured questions throughout. After each trial with a user, a user experience researcher can identify common interactions with the interface, synthesize the data, and redesign accordingly.[5]

Due đồ sộ the generally lower-fidelity nature of wireframe, it is very easy and cost-efficient đồ sộ make changes. The point of a wireframe is đồ sộ capture the design of the fundamental structure, high-level interaction pattern within an interface, otherwise known as the critical points,[5] so sánh it really allows a designer đồ sộ work quickly, perfect for an agile environment where group members work collaboratively đồ sộ "sprint" đồ sộ the next iteration.

Wireframes may have different levels of detail and can be broken up into two categories in terms of fidelity, or how closely they resemble the kết thúc product.


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Resembling a rough sketch or a quick mock-up, low-fidelity wireframes can be quickly produced. These wireframes help a project team communicate ideas and collaborate more effectively since they are more abstract, using rectangles and labeling đồ sộ represent nội dung.[4]: 185  Dummy nội dung, Latin filler text (lorem ipsum), sample or symbolic nội dung are used đồ sộ represent data when real nội dung is not available.[1]: 175  For example, instead of using actual images, a placeholder rectangle can be used.

Low-fidelity wireframes can be used đồ sộ facilitate team communication on a project and is used in the early stages of a project.[6][7]


High-fidelity wireframes are often used for documenting because they incorporate a level of detail that more closely matches the design of the actual webpage, thus taking longer đồ sộ create.[4]: 185 

For simple or low-fidelity drawings, paper prototyping is a common technique. Since these sketches are just representations, annotations—adjacent notes đồ sộ explain behavior—are useful.[1]: 194  For more complex projects, rendering wireframes using computer software is popular. Some tools allow the incorporation of interactivity including Flash animation, and front-end trang web technologies such as, HTML, CSS, and JavaScript.

High fidelity wireframes include more real nội dung, specific typography choices, and information on image dimensions. Unlike low fidelity wireframes, high fidelity wireframes can include actual images. Màu sắc choices are not included, but different values in color can be represented in grayscale.[6][7]

Elements of wireframes[edit]

The skeleton plan of a trang web can be broken down into three components: information design, navigation design, and interface design. Page layout is where these components come together, while wireframing is what depicts the relationship between these components.[3]: 131 

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Information design[edit]

Information design is the presentation—placement and prioritization of information in a way that facilitates understanding. Information design is an area of user experience design, meant đồ sộ display information effectively for clear communication. For websites, information elements should be arranged in a way that reflects the goals and tasks of the user.[3]: 126 

Navigation design[edit]

The navigation system provides a mix of screen elements that allow the user đồ sộ move page đồ sộ page through the trang web. The navigation design should communicate the relationship between the links it contains so sánh that users understand the options they have for navigating the site. Often, websites contain multiple navigation systems, such as a global navigation, local navigation, supplementary navigation, contextual navigation, and courtesy navigation.[3]: 120–122 

Interface design[edit]

User interface design includes selecting and arranging interface elements đồ sộ enable users đồ sộ interact with the functionality of the system.[3]: 30  The goal is đồ sộ facilitate usability and efficiency as much as possible. Common elements found in interface design are action buttons, text fields, kiểm tra boxes, radio buttons and drop-down menus.

See also[edit]

  • Blueprint
  • Comprehensive layout
  • Graphic design
  • Information architecture
  • Interaction design
  • User experience design
  • User interface design
  • Web design